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    煙草專業英語考試總結

    時間:2013-07-31 11:04 閱讀:
    Chapter 1 單詞翻譯: Nicotian煙草屬&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; combustion :燃燒.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Solanaceae茄科&nbsp;&nb...

    Chapter 1

    單詞翻譯:

    Nicotian煙草屬           combustion :燃燒.          Solanaceae茄科            

    combustibility 可燃性度    nicotine  尼古丁,煙堿          pest resistance抗蟲害

    agronomic performance農藝性能      ChineseStyle Cigarette :中式卷煙

    Chinese-style cigarette:中式卷煙         Virginian-type cigarette:烤煙型卷煙

    blended cigarette:混合型卷煙            tar content:焦油含量

    aromatic芳香的          limit regulation’:限焦令.    Virginia tobacco :弗吉尼亞煙

    Flue-cured tobacco:烤煙  Bright tobacco :淺色煙      Burley  tobacco :白肋煙

    Oriental tobacco 東方煙   Aromatic tobacco :香料煙    Maryland tobacco :馬里蘭煙

    Cigar tobacco :雪茄煙    disease resistance:抗病性    plant's physiology:植物生理

    thresh:打葉  redrying:復烤    aging:老化,(陳化、醇化)        fermentation 發酵

    cigarette manufacture:卷煙生產   smoke chemistry:煙氣化學    cigar雪茄

    cigarillo小雪茄   smokeless tobacco:無煙煙草    botanical植物的

    air-curing 晾制 sun-curing曬制 fire-curing 熏制fiue-curing烤制

    the State Tobacco Monopoly Administration STMA officially:國家煙草專賣局

    2.    長句子翻譯

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a kind of special plant containing nicotine, belong to Solanaceae, Nicotiana. Tobacco differs from other crops in that it is used mostly for combustion. Variables of botanical, physical and chemical characteristics of leaf tobacco determine degrees of combustibility, smoke composition, taste and aroma and, thus, product acceptability.

    煙草是一種特殊的含有尼古丁的植物,屬于茄科煙草屬。煙草作為燃燒物質又不同與其他作物,煙草的植物、物理、化學特性決定了其燃燒程度、煙氣組成、香氣、吸味和可接受程度。

    Because the properties of tobacco and, therefore, its usability vary markedly with variety, locality, system of production and curing method, standardization of the commercial product is essential for growers and users (i.e. manufacturers). It is based primarily on curing method (air-, sun-, fire- and flue-curing), locality of production (growth) and the way in which the leaf is to be used (cigarette, cigar, pipe, etc.). Further classification is then according to position on the stalk from which the leaves have originated and factors such as their color, quality and ripeness at harvest.

    由于煙草的性質及其可用性均隨品種、生產區域、生產方式和調制方法的不同而發生顯著的變化,因此,制定煙葉商品標準對煙草種植者和產品制造商來說都是十分必要的。先按煙草的調制方法(晾、曬、熏、烤)、生產區域和使用方式(卷煙、雪茄、斗煙等)進行分類,然后再依據煙葉的生長部位、顏色、質量和成熟度等因素進一步細分。

    3.    簡答

    根據煙草的調制方法,使用方式把煙草分為幾類?(至少寫五種,每種一分,共五分)

    Virginia tobacco弗吉尼亞煙Flue-cured tobacco烤煙Burley tobacco白肋煙sun-cured tobacco曬煙Oriental tobacco東方煙、香料煙Maryland tobacco馬里蘭煙Cigar tobacco雪茄煙

    Cigarette卷煙light air-cured tobacco淺色晾煙dark air-cured tobacco深色晾煙

    Chapter2

    alkaloid生物堿Frost-free days無霜期blue mold 霜霉病photoperiodism光周期現象short-day plants 短日照植物seedlings幼苗bare-root transplants裸根移植plant populations植物種群nitrogen氮肥Topping打頂 stalk莖稈 suckering抹叉ripeness成熟premature未成熟的

     

     

    Chapter 3

    1.       單詞翻譯

    light air-cured:淺色晾曬型dark air-cured:深色晾曬型sun-cured:曬()

    cigar filler:雪茄芯煙binder (雪茄煙)內衣;(雪茄煙)內包皮Turkish土耳其(煙葉)

    wrapper (雪茄煙)外衣;(雪茄煙)外包皮interspecific cross:雜交

    gene mutations:基因突變broad terms:廣義breeder:育種人員;育種工作者;

    cultivar品種germplasm sources:種質資源genotypes:基因型

    outlining tests概述測試trait:特征attribute屬性handling處理 lamina (煙葉)葉片

    midvein(煙葉葉片)中脈 filling:填充值 harsh (煙氣)粗糙、(煙氣)生硬

    bitterpungent辛辣 aroma香氣mass selection:混合選擇allele:等位基因.

    pedigree雜交分離世代譜系backcross回交recurrent:輪回選擇haploid:單倍體

    tissue culture techniques:組織培養技術doubled haploids:雙單倍體

    inherited trait:遺傳性狀homozygote純合子interspcific bridge cross種間雜交

    inbreeding近親繁殖genetically variable:基因變異recombination基因重組

    black root rot:黑腐病crop failure:糧食欠收sensory properties:感官特性morphological形態特征pyrolysis:裂解heterosis雜種優勢

    長句子翻譯

    In broad terms, a modern breeding project will consist of three phases: planning, line development and testing. In the planning phase, a breeder should carefully define the goals to be accomplished. Generally, this will be correcting a deficiency in existing cultivars or increasing the desirability of cultivars for one or more traits. Other aspects of planning include identifying and/or selecting appropriate germplasm sources, choosing the best breeding method, identifying or developing techniques needed to evaluate the breeding materials and to select the best genotypes and outlining tests required to fully characterize the lines obtained from the breeding effort. The line development and testing phases are the parts of the project where the plans are carried out and, hopefully, the objectives accomplished.

    概括地講,現代育種項目包括制定計劃、品種培育和品系鑒定3個階段。在計劃制定階段,育種者必須仔細地確定欲完成的育種目標。一般是改進現有栽培品種的缺陷,或提高栽培品種一個或多個性狀合乎需要的程度。另外,計劃還應包含鑒定或篩選適當種質資源,選擇最佳的育種方法,鑒定或開發評價育種材料和選擇優良基因型所需要的技術,以及提出完全表征該育種研究篩選品系特性的鑒定要點。品系培育和鑒定階段是育種項目進行并最后完成所期望的目標的一部分。

    There have been many advances in tobacco breeding and genetics over the past several years. Breeders have developed cultivars with high yield, good quality and resistance to several diseases. In addition, inheritance information has been obtained for numerous characteristics, and a vast array of germplasm has been collected and characterized. This solid base of genetic information and germplasm enhances the prospects for future advancements. Also, new information and emerging technologies in chemistry and biology, especially in genetic engineering, have promising applications in tobacco improvement.

    在過去的幾年里,煙草遺傳和育種上出現了許多新進展。育種學家培育出了高產、優質和抗多種病害的新品種。另外,還得到了許多性狀的遺傳信息,搜集和鑒定了大量的種質。遺傳信息和種質的堅實基礎展現了未來光明的發展前景,在化學和生物方面,尤其基因工程技術方面的新信息、新技術在煙草的改良中具有光明的應用前景。

    2.       簡答

    煙草改良常用的育種方法有哪些?(至少寫出五種,每種一分,共計五分)

    Backcross Breeding 回交育種Genetic engineering Breeding 基因工程育種

    Haploids Breeding 單倍體育種Mass selection Breeding 混合選擇育種

    Pedigree Breeding 系譜法育種,系統育種Pure-line selection Breeding 純系選擇育種

    Recurrent selection Breeding 輪回選擇育種Introduction Breeding 引種育種

    Hybridization Breeding  雜交育種Distant hybridization Breeding 遠緣雜交育種

    Induced mutation breeding 誘變育種

    3.       看圖翻譯

    1.下圖是一個完整煙草花的解剖圖,請選擇合適的英文單詞填空

     


    angular leaf spot :煙草角斑病black shank:煙草黑脛病black root rot:煙草根黑腐病

    stalk n.[]vascular n .[]維管的sore shin:煙草立枯病Granville wilt:煙草青枯病

    collar rot:煙草菌核?。?span>Sclerotinia rot)Fusarium wilt :煙草枯萎病hollow stalk:煙草空莖病efficient methods :有效方法disease control:病害控制cured tobacco:烤煙

    nematode: 線蟲parasitic:adj.寄生的;寄生物的;由寄生蟲引起的屬( Genus)

    (Species)insecticide :殺蟲劑pesticide:農藥

    問題:

    1.真菌病害:brown spot:煙草赤星病black shank:煙草黑脛病powdery mildew:煙草白粉病black root rot:煙草根黑腐病sore shin:煙草立枯病blue mold: 煙草霜霉病

    2.細菌病害:hollow stalk:煙草空莖病angular leaf spot :煙草角斑病

    3.根莖部病害:black shank:煙草黑脛病black root rot:煙草根黑腐病Fusarium wilt :煙草枯萎病hollow stalk:煙草空莖病sore shin:煙草立枯病Granville wilt:煙草青枯病

    4.葉部病害:blue mold: 煙草霜霉病brown spot:煙草赤星病

    powdery mildew:煙草白粉病target spot:煙草靶斑病wild fire :煙草野火???

    主要病源:funguses.真菌bacteria細菌 virus病毒nematode pests 有害線蟲insect pests害蟲

     

    Chapter 7 Tobacco Leaf Chemistry

    constituent :n. 成分,構成部分;委托人, 選民Carbohydrate:碳水化合物,糖類

    Starch:淀粉Sugar:糖Sugar Ester:糖脂Cellulose:纖維素Pectin:果膠質

    polymer n.多聚物;[高分子] 聚合物 polysaccharide: n.多醣,聚糖,多聚糖

    saccharide:糖類amylose n.直鏈淀粉amylopectin n.支鏈淀粉sucrose:蔗糖

    blend:混合物stinging:刺激的odor:氣味,臭味reconstituted tobacco:重組煙草

    fiber:纖維alkaloid:生物堿nicotine:尼古丁Plastid:質體pigment:色素

    carotenoid:類胡蘿卜素 precursor:前體物volatile:易揮發的;易變的,不穩定的;

    aroma:芳香,香味;

    煙草中碳水化合物主要有:Starch:淀粉Sugar:糖Sugar Ester:糖脂Cellulose:纖維素Pectin:果膠質

     

    Chapter 8

    1.       單詞翻譯

    filling value 填充值burn rate 燃燒率adsorption  吸附作用raw material 原料

    cut rag 煙絲specific volume比容shred煙絲constant velocity勻速compress壓縮,壓緊;精簡adsorption equilibrium 吸附平衡vacuum drying 真空干燥relative humidity 相對濕度sulfuric acid 硫酸saturated飽和的;滲透的;深顏色的wrap paper 外包紙permeability滲透性;通透性additives添加劑ventilation通風設備;空氣流通puff抽吸口數circumference 圓周;周長the static burning rate靜燃速率equilibrium moisture平衡含水率,平衡水分taste吸味filter過濾材料tobacco blending配方body身份degree of damage殘傷度cigarette paper卷煙紙

    長句子翻譯

    There are three main ways to measure equilibrium moisture content. One method takes measurements by a gas with a fixed relative humidity that flows through a sample. Another method measures equilibrium moisture under the water vapor environment after evacuating air. The third way uses a desiccator and adjusts the humidity with a sulfuric acid solution or a saturated salt solution and takes measurements under atmospheric pressure.

    測定平衡含水率有三種主要方法。方法一是采用一種具有穩定相對濕度的氣體流過被測樣品進行測定。方法二是在抽出空氣后的水蒸汽的環境下測定平衡含水率。第三種方法使用了一個干燥器,通過調整含有硫酸溶液或飽和鹽溶液的濕度,在大氣壓下進行測定。

    Chapter 10

    1.       單詞翻譯

    Reconstituted sheet 再造煙葉expansion膨脹homogenized:均勻分布微粒的shred碎片slurring:稠漿法impregnation:滲入adhesives粘合劑slurry:漿體mainstream smoke:主流煙氣sidestream smoke測流煙氣lamina體積Slurry Sheet Process:稠漿法humectant:保濕劑 diced:切割cut filler:填料pulp紙漿 recon薄片煙Smoking Qualities :吸食質量

    sensory quality:感官質量signature flavor:獨特風味carbon monoxide:一氧化碳

    tailor- made:量身定做carcinogen致癌物shredded:切絲rolled stems:壓梗

    filter過濾limonene ['lim?ni:n]:檸檬烯

    長句子翻譯

    Expanded tobacco is an essential part of processing of most cigarette products. It is an efficient means of expanding the volume of tobacco lamina by up to 100%. The main benefits of using expanded tobacco are: reduces cigarette weight while reserving its natural tobacco taste; increases the filling value and burn rate, thus reducing the number of puffs, which in turn reduces the tar and nicotine deliveries per cigarette.

    膨脹煙絲是大多數卷煙產品加工中的重要組成部分。它是一種有效的手段,能夠擴大煙草葉片體積高達100%。使用膨脹煙絲的主要好處是:減少卷煙的重量,同時保留其天然的煙草味道,增加填充值和燃燒率,從而降低了抽吸口數,也就是減少了每支卷煙的焦油和尼古丁含量。

    Reconstituted sheet, commonly called recon, is now considered an integral part of processing any quality and cost-effective cigarettes product. Recent advances in paper making technology allow for producing tailor- made recon that can play a major role in the development of many blended cigarettes,Virginia, oriental and black cigarettes as well as other smoking products.

    再造薄片,俗稱薄片煙,現在被認為是具有優秀質量和具有成本效益香煙產品工序的一個組成部分。再造薄片技術的進步使量身訂做的薄片煙,在許多混合型卷煙的發展中起了重要的作用,在弗吉尼亞煙,東方煙和黑色香煙以及其他煙草產品也是如此。

    Chapter 11

    1.       單詞翻譯

    delivery /釋放量TSNAtobacco specific nitrosamine) 煙草特有的亞硝胺

    benzo(a)pyrene  B(a)P 苯并芘;苯并(a)dimension  規格、尺寸

    rod  / ()支;()條;枝條carton   紙板箱neutralizer  中和劑

    resin  樹脂;松香syrup 糖漿果汁;含藥糖漿integral 積分的;完整的,整體的

    venation  脈絡;葉脈tobacco rod 煙條 煙絲被卷煙紙包卷后形成的長圓柱體。

    ash /??/ 灰分;煙灰wrapper包裝材料; /包裝/ 包裝紙;書皮binder粘合劑

    inhale  /in'heil/ 吸入aftertaste  余味shred   煙絲adverse effect 不利影響;副作用flavor grades (致香型)煙葉modifier grades調味型)煙葉filler grades  (填充型)煙葉extensive   廣泛的;大量的volatile  揮發性的;不穩定的

    ameliorate  / 改善;減輕(痛苦等);改良processability 加工性;加工性能

    pliable柔韌的;柔軟的;圓滑的;易曲折的evaporate蒸發,揮發

    exterior外部;表面;外型;外貌stretch  伸展,延伸cellulosic有纖維質的

    porous  多孔滲水的;能滲透的;有氣孔的cellulose acetate醋酸纖維

    charcoal   木炭cosmetic化妝品;裝飾品firmness  硬度

    長句子翻譯

    Cigarette manufacturing involves developing a specific tobacco blend utilizing the desired tobacco types, breaking up the tobaccos stored in hogsheads or bales, combining the blend components, cutting the raw tobaccos into specific dimensions, applying casing and top dressing materials (unless it is a no-additive product), adjusting moisture content, selecting the appropriate filter, paper, cigarette design properties, combining these components into a rod (usually on a high speed machine), inserting the rods into a pack, placing the packs into cartons and consolidating the cartons into cases for distribution.

    卷煙制造過程包括根據所需類型開發出特定的葉組配方,解煙包,煙葉摻配,切絲,加香加料(不加香加料的卷煙除外),調節水分,選擇適宜的過濾嘴、卷煙紙、卷煙設計參數,卷成煙支(通常用高速卷煙機),裝盒,成條,最后裝箱以便于批發銷售。

    The blend is the single most important factor in determining the smoke quality of a product. Blending can be defined as the combining of raw materials in grades identifiable through visual, chemical and smoking characteristics. Through blending, taste character, irritation/harshness and strength can be altered to the desired product brief. The blender must be familiar with the smoke characteristics of each individual grade of each tobacco type. He must be able to look at the quality of each individual grade and know how that appearance of the tobacco will marry with other blend components and smoke in the final product.

    配方是決定卷煙產品吸食質量的最主要的因素。配方可以定義為將依據外觀質量、化學成分和感官特性分級的煙葉原料進行組合。通過配方,口味特征、刺激性/粗糙感和勁頭可以被調整為所期望的產品特征。配方設計人員必須熟悉不同等級、不同類型煙葉的吸食特性。并且能夠根據某一等級煙葉原料的品質,知道它在與其他組分配時的表現,以及在最終產品中的吸食表現。

    Cigarette paper is composed of an inorganic filler and cellulosic fiber. The most common inorganic filler is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Special fillers may be used for reducing sidestream smoke yields. Common fibers used for cigarette papers include flax and wood pulp.

    卷煙紙由無機填料和纖維質材料組成。最為常用的無機填料是碳酸鈣(CaCO3)。有時會用一些特殊填料來減少測流煙氣量。卷煙紙使用的常見纖維包括亞麻纖維和木漿纖維。

    簡答題

    1煙株的煙葉由下至上分別為:sand lugs,primings腳葉,中下部葉(下二棚),cutters中部葉(腰葉),leaf上中部葉(上二棚),tips頂葉

    2煙草可分為三類:

    flavor grades (致香型)煙葉

    modifier grades調味型)煙葉

    filler grades  (填充型)煙葉

     

    Chapter 12  Cigarette Quality Assurance

    parameter:參數instrumentation n.使用儀器,裝設儀器; weight :重量cigarette:卷煙

    circumference:圓周diameter:直徑ovality:橢圓度roundness:圓度pressure drop :壓降

    resistance-to-draw (rtd) draw:吸引,拉,拖。draft :氣流filter rods :過濾嘴

    ventilation :通風設備Ventilation:通風Dilution :稀釋low tar cigarettes 低焦油卷煙

    perforat :打孔Porosity : n.多孔性,有孔性porous : adj. 有毛孔或氣孔的

    perforation n.穿孔,貫穿,針孔,齒孔cigarette paper:卷煙紙tipping paper接裝紙(水松紙)

    plug wrap paper :成型紙(濾嘴棒紙)filter rod :濾嘴棒Moisture:水分

    Water Content:含水率Total Oven Volatiles:烘箱總揮發物Plasticizer:增塑劑

    cellulose acetate:醋酸纖維Smoking machine:吸煙機total particulate matter:總粒相物質

    gas phase :氣相

    簡答

    卷煙的基本參數:Weight重量Circumference or Diameter Measurement圓周或直徑Pressure Drop壓降Ventilation通風度Firmness (Also Called Hardness) Including Filling Power堅實度Paper Porosity (or Permeability紙的孔隙度或透氣度Moisture水分Length長度Measurement of Plasticizer增塑劑Smoking Machines and Gas Phase Analyzers吸煙機和氣相分析儀Air Flow Measuring Instruments空氣流量測定儀Cigarette Pack Seal Testers卷煙的包裝密封性測試

    chapter13

    1煙氣收集的方法:Cambridge filter劍橋濾片Electrostatic Precipitation 靜電沉積器    

    Cold Traps冷阱Solid Adsorbents固體吸附Solvent Traps溶劑阱

    Mainstream Smoke (MS)主流煙氣Sidestream Smoke (SS)測流煙氣Environmental tobacco Smoke (ETS)環境煙氣

    smoke aerosol煙氣氣溶膠gas phase and particles氣相和粒相

    劍橋濾片的優點:1. Effectively retains particulate phase smoke at room temperature2. Nonhygroscopic3. Easily fashioned into filters of uniform efficiency4. Requires minimum user preparation5. Inexpensive

    影響劍橋濾片平衡的因素1. Temperature2. Filter loading3. Flow4. Moisture level of the pad

    What is TPM ?

    TPM=Total Particulate Matter = Nicotine + Tar + Water

    Chapter 14   Natural Tobacco Flavor

    top dressings flavor:加表用香精casing flavor :加料用香精filter flavor:濾嘴用香精

    elucidate vt.闡明,解釋flue-cured烤制    burley    oriental東方的

    Maryland tobacco馬里蘭煙

    Turkish tobacco土耳其煙

    Aroma芳香,香味

    香精可以分為三種top dressings flavor:加表用香精casing flavor :加料用香精filter flavor:濾嘴用香精

     

     

     

    http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQXX1Odzd_zTMKDEF1bGKQXfPTFmxiJbqXFHSlhOX8-bJxC6jpX

     

     

     

     

    Chapter 16

    1.       單詞翻譯

    controversial有爭議的,引起爭議的,被爭論的; 好爭論的

    millennia一千年( millennium的名詞復數 );千年期;myocardial  心肌的

    infarction  梗塞形成,梗死形成peripheral外圍的;次要的;(神經)末梢區域的

    vascular  脈管的,血管的,含有血管的;chronic 慢性的長期的;obstructive故意阻礙的monograph專著,專論carcinogenic致癌物()surgeon  外科醫生

    長句子翻譯

    Numerous studies were conducted on the association with smoking of four diseases: cancer of the lung, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and chronic obstructive lung diseases. However, others maintain the conclusion that smoking is one of the factors contributing to these diseases is 'more fairly described as presumptive than as proved'.

    已經進行了大量有關吸煙與肺癌、心肌梗死、心腦血管疾病和慢性支氣管疾病關系的研究。然而,一些人堅持認為吸煙只是這些疾病的發病原因之一。

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